What are the psychological and cultural mechanisms responsible for the prevalence of religious beliefs? Are human beings naturally predisposed to believe in the supernatural agency? Is it possible to explain various forms of religion with reference to the universal structures of human mind? These are the most fundamental questions addressed in this book. The main purpose of the book is to provide a sound evolutionary and cognitive account of the origins of religious phenomena, based on the diversified body of psychological and anthropological data. Classical approaches to religion in social sciences are presented, analyzed and criticized. Furthermore, a new branch of theorizing developing at the intersection of natural and social sciences, inspired by the recent developments in biology, evolutionary psychology and cognitive anthropology is introduced and employed to analyze various religious phenomena, including religious beliefs and rituals. Finally, further perspectives of the evolutionary and cognitive approach to culture are put forward.