This book reports the results obtained by sequencing the genome and the transcriptome of the microalga N.gaditana using next generation sequencing technologies. The project fulfilled the two important aims of assembling a draft of the genome sequence using sole next generation short reads and providing a genetic background for a better understanding of N. gaditana biology in order to improve its value as a model organism for biotechnological applications related to biofuel production. This work by Elisa Corteggiani represented an exceptional advance in the understanding of the high priority biofuel organism Nannochloropsis gaditana. Species of algae adapted to salt-water cultivation, and capable of achieving high yields of lipids are the subject of intense global interest. Despite widespread research on species of Nannochloropsis, no reference genome was available, nor was information regarding changes in transcript abundance under triacylglycerol synthesizing conditions. The research presented in this book addresses these shortcomings and all the data presented will reveal very useful insights when fully analysed.