The history of goitre is probably old than humankind himself. Goitre has been presented in different parts of the world. Iodine deficiency not only causes goitre, the obvious sign of inadequate iodine intake, but may also result in irreversible brain damage in the infant, and retarded the psychomotor development in the child. Iodine deficiency continues to be a significant public health problem in many areas of the world. In Sudan it has been recognized as a public health problem since the 1950's. A nation-wide surveys on iodine deficiency were launched and various approaches in the quest for a solution to the problem were applied. Still, the number of thyroid disorders continues to grow each year. With this growth, there should be a concern to underlying the state of endemicity and to outline the most suitable methods by means of which goitre can be controlled. This book sheds lights and reiterates thyroid disorders in Sudan in the basis of nuclear medicine technology. The statistical findings should be especially useful to professionals in endemicity and nuclear medicine as well.