Knowing the level of spending of governments is the first step in examining the ability to sustain a response to the HIV pandemic. The UNGASS Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS was signed by 189 countries agreeing to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of halting and beginning to reverse the HIV/AIDS pandemic by 2015. The project of which this book is a part of is aimed at developing a comprehensive framework for health and non-health public expenditures to confront the HIV pandemic. The objective is twofold; to identify determinants for the domestic public expenditures on HIV and AIDS in low- and middle-income countries, and to predict the domestic public expenditures on HIV and AIDS. The model is based on information from the National AIDS Spending Assessments at the country level. It considers the impact of demographic and non-demographic variables for both health and non-health expenditures(education, advocacy and policy development, the judiciary system and human rights). The results are meant to provide essential empirical information on financial resources available for responding to the HIV and AIDS pandemic.