The chemistry of the renewable resources applied to the conception of new viable novel eco-friendly materials is a burning issue and has captured the attention of researchers both from the academic and industrial world. It is intensively connected to natural bio-resources, agricultural production and new developments in biomass management. As a result of growing environmental consciousness, the issues of sustainability, industrial ecology, eco-efficiency, and green chemistry are guiding the development of the next generation of materials and processes. Renewable resources such as natural fibers in the field of green polymeric materials with their new range of applications represent an important basis in order to fulfill the ecological objective of creating eco-friendly materials. In this book, the fundamental perceptive of natural fibers such as classification, techniques for surface modification, novel applications, general methods and chemistry of synthesis of polymers and composites, analysis of mechanical, physico-chemical and thermal properties are explored.