With the increasing gulf between the energy requirement and its limited supply create immense pressure on the conventional resources like fossil fuels, and the increasing green house gas emission is responsible for global warming, alongwith it number of people around the world are unable to access energy which is thier basic right in the present twenty-second century world. To solve all this issue the only solution is bioenergy i.e. biofuel. Bioethanol is a biofuel derived from biomass. Initially it is produced form food grains and starch based feedstock which make it commercially unviable due to costly feed stock and also create a question on our ethics as one third population of world is facing the problem of hunger and starvation. Because of these issues the best way out is to use lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production. In this vary work Azolla (lignocellulosic biomass) is used as a substrate for bioethanol production and quite good results with future possibilities were obtained. This is believed that this book will become useful and helpful for various scientists who are involved in the novel and innovative research work in bioethanol production.