The limited water resources in arid areas have led to the use of low-quality irrigation water in agriculture which may reduce crop yields and damage the environment. This study is focused on a greenhouse concept with integrated water desalination considered for small scale applications at remote locations in areas where only saline water is available. In this greenhouse the roof light transmission is reduced as solar radiation is absorbed by a layer of flowing water on a glass covered by a top glass. Fresh water is evaporated, condensed on the top glass and collected at the roof eaves. The main objective of this monograph is to analyze the fresh water production as well as the crop growth capacity and water demand for the concept. Included are theoretical and experimental studies with a focus on the total system performance and design. The work also includes perspectives on the potential for more advanced cover materials and system concepts of particular interest for further development into future applications. Economic analyses including water costs and grower revenues indicate that this concept competes well with solar collector based technologies for water desalination.