Conventional energy resources like oil, coal and gas are finite and the consumption of fossil fuels increases every year along with improvements in the quality of life, industrialization of developing nations, and an increase in growth of the world population. As a counteract to the forthcoming problem of energy shortage the countries put their focus on renewable energy sources. While the industrialized countries concentrate their investment on wind and solar energy technology, the developing countries put their focus on hydroelectricity. The book will therefore take a loo at one of the rising countries in South America, Chile, and California, as a green energy policy model. The focus will be laid on comparing and contrasting the development of conventional and non-conventional hydroelectric energy in Chile and California. Thus the book takes a closer look at the development and growth of renewable energy sources in both regions and of hydroelectric energy generation in particular, the concept of sustainable development, it gives a brief historical overview of dam building and will more closely examine the electricity and water market, as well as the environmental policy of Chile and California. In the end it will show the similarities both regions share and answer the question if Chile can learn from California.