The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is one of the major geological structures of the African plate and continent and is known as the second most important geological curiosity in Africa after the East-African-Rift system. This book focuses on the use of hydrochemistry, multivariate statistics and environmental tracers (18O, 2H, 3H and CFCs) to establish the origin, geochemical evolution, usability and groundwater flow system of groundwater resources of two agro-industrial areas of the CVL (Banana Plain and Mount Cameroon area). The findings of this book are important in that they contribute in the identification of groundwater quality evolution and flow dynamics in these two important agro-industrial areas thereby contributing to the sustainable management of their groundwater resources. Of particular interest is the vulnerability of the shallow aquifers to nitrate contamination to anthropogenic activities in the Banana Plain. In the Mount Cameroon area, the conceptualization of the flow system and the occurrence of different recharge elevations will play a role in finding proper sites for future groundwater development and catchment area protection.