In response to the growing awareness of groundwater degradation, there has been increased concern about nitrate mobility and retention in soils and water resources. Nitrate might be released from various sources, transport through vadose zones and contaminate groundwater as the sole source of water in many parts of the world. This book, therefore provides impacts of different landuses on nitrate transport in an unconfined calcareous sandy aquifer in an arid area southeast of I.R.Iran. Phytoremediation by afforested Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., attenuation by artificial recharge of aquifer, and partially adsorption of nitrate by calcareous materials as the main removal processes are being discussed through various chapters. Integrating mentioned removal processes as Aquifer Management in arid and semi-arid regions of the world may be accounted for decision makers and desert dwellers to cope with both water scarcity and health arising issues.