The Cape Flats, characterized by relatively flat surface and vegetation of thick Coastal Fynbos, represent the ?Late-Tertiary and Recent sands' unit up to 50 m thick in places. The sandy aquifer is underlain by Precambrian and Palaeozoic rocks belonging to the Cape granite suite, the Malmesbury Formation, and the Table Mountain Group. With a long- term mean annual precipitation (MAP) of 600 mm, the management of the groundwater resource in this area becomes necessary. This book reviews the history and problems of groundwater development, and provides extensive information on the geology, hydrology, hydrogeology, recharge quantification, and groundwater chemistry in the Cape Flats. The aim is to utilize all of the information to aid conceptual understanding as well as develop a method suitable for the aquifer's vulnerability assessment and mapping to set the stage for groundwater protection. The analysis and interpretation of available data provided improved understanding and the characteristics of the Cape Flats aquifer showed the quality of its groundwater is suitable for development as a water resource.