Research about the growth of nanostructures on various semiconductor materials is an emerging and most burning field in all over the world with wide spread applicability in crystal photonics and lithography. In order to change the surface morphology as well as optical properties of semiconductor materials, an electron beam of high energy at a constant dose was used to get the required results (Despite of Ion beam irradiation, Doping and Annealing etc). Due to structural changes and modifications various kinds of periodic nanostructures were observed. Also due to tunable band gap of Zinc Oxide we were able to get maximum absorption in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. It is too much useful in photonics to replace the Gallium Arsenide LEDs because our sample that can emit light in visible region. This book has been written in a clear and concise manner with the extensive use of annotated text as well as coloured images and micrographs. It covers all the compulsory relevant topics and applications. In writing this book, I have generous help from my respected teacher as Co-Author (Dr. Khurram Siraj) who has provided kind suggestions to materialized this book.