School guidance and counselling remain a critical component of providing quality education in the context of the myriad of challenges facing young people; be they emotional, psychological or just to do with physical development. Concepts of guidance and counselling, and role perceptions have been reviewed in detail. The manuscript details conceptions of head teachers and teacher counsellors in Kenyan public primary schools, of their roles in guiding and counselling pupils, eliciting many challenges they face in articulating these roles. These challenges are worth looking at. Included in this work is the traditional African Concept of Guidance and counselling making it an remarkable piece to look at. For wider perspective, the concepts of guidance and counselling in USA and UK have been highlighted; in each case comparing it with the Kenyan concept. Phenomenographic research approach for determining conceptions in addition to empirical design is covered in detail making this piece of work relevant for researchers and scholars who want to understand the concept of phenomenography.