In this book the political economy of illicit arms proliferation among Borena society are described and analyzed by qualitative methodological approaches. The analysis was mainly based on the data that has been gathered through questionnaire, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and non-participant observations. The long practice of Gadaa system, the limited presence of the state as well as the mobile nature of pastoralist livelihood have resulted in the militarization of the youth, and the expansion of the ‘gun culture’ in Borena. The diffusion of such weapons feeds cycles of insecurity, undermines livelihood strategies, and imperils development opportunities and intensified cattle-rustling practices. Fear for life and physical well-being, as well as fear to freely exercise religious, cultural, political and economic rights and entitlements fundamentally arise out of this environment – where small arms are relatively easy to procure and controls are extremely lax.