This book focuses on a critical and comprehensive evaluation of community participation in a post-conflict environment within a health sector reform process at the beginning of the 2000s. It presents as an example- the health decentralisation in Guatemala- after the formal end of the country''s 40 years period of civil war. The results of a comprehensive evaluation developed through the book, demonstrate the need for a deeper and more extensive understanding of the multiple complexities present in post-conflict environments. Academicians, researchers, consultants and students involved in the fields of monitoring and evaluation and international health and development, can use the whole or parts of this evaluation framework as a technical-conceptual tool, which combines various methodologies coming from a constructionist theory rationale. It has also gathered an extensive array of qualitative and quantitative descriptive indicators which can be interrelated in different ways. This comprehensive framework allows for a deeper understanding of how evaluation of similar post-conflict environments can be done, adapting the framework to those complex realities.