Providing equitable health care to all Indian citizens is a significant challenge given the huge shortfall in health funding and large population base. In this context, health insurers have a key structural role to play in financing India’s health needs and also uplift India’s health profile. The health insurance sector is unfortunately hurdled by a tight regulatory environment and operates under a high cost structure and with very little control over the downstream processes, such as treatment guidelines and medical protocols. The sector continues to stagnate due to low product innovation and the heavy dependence on indemnity products, which puts the entire economic risk on to the insurer. This book is meant to be a primer about the Indian health insurance industry and offers a commentary on the various operational and market issues the health insurers face. The authors conclude by providing suggestions on how the health insurers can evolve to face the industry challenges.