Population dwellings in unplanned settlement have significant health risks physically, mentally and socially. Currently, an increase of unplanned settlements in different places of Tanzania and neighboring African countries pose a health risk to the residents. Rapid urban growth requires appropriate forms of governance must be evolved so as to take into account the diverse nature of urban residents and the need to meet their specific demands. This book examines the health status of population dwelling in planned and unplanned settlements where two wards one from each area were studied. In unplanned settlement, housing conditions, sanitation and indoor air and water pollution introduced serious health problems. Poor incomes, poor diet, low levels of education, unemployment and high medical costs were among the underlining causes of poor health in unplanned settlements. The findings in this book should be useful especially to urban planning professionals, health policy planners and politicians throughout the desire to protect health of the city residents. Urban planning, health policy, and political commitment are the basic elements in improving health condition of urban poor.