The development of health systems in sub-Saharan Africa has been seriously challenged in the last two decades by the rise of HIV/AIDS. Still today, the interface between health policy and HIV/AIDS in South Africa is poorly understood. This book tackles different dimensions to this problem through diverse types of enquiry and analysis. As there has historically been a gap in our understanding of the impact of HIV/AIDS on health systems, it first considers empirical evidence from research on health facilities and health management structures in a health district in KwaZulu-Natal. Trends elicited through this research then form the basis of a policy analysis section, which contemplates the appropriateness of South African health policy from 1994 through to the present with respect to HIV/AIDS. To complete the picture, a more theoretical look is taken at the potential future influence of the antiretroviral therapy programme on the health system and how various health system scenarios may play out.