There is an urgent need to assess vulnerability to climate change in order to develop effective health adaptation strategies as key agents for buffering against climate change. Bangladesh makes an ideal case study for this question due to its geographical location and geo-morphological conditions. The nation's susceptibility to floods, tropical cyclones, storm surges and droughts pose threats to health—even without the added threat of climate change. To analyze health vulnerability methodologies, it is essential to critically examine the different assessment methodologies. This book ventures such an assessment, providing a framework on which to develop a health adaptation strategy. Based on a review of published research and the insights offered by stakeholders, this book presents the components of methodologies relevant to developing countries like Bangladesh. It concludes by identifying the need for climate change health vulnerability assessments and components of methodologies, particularly for developing countries, and points out the importance of assessment methodologies for developing health adaptation strategies.