There are several books on the subject of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, this book gives a picture of Helicobacter pylori infection in a developing country. Poor socio-economic conditions, overcrowding and lack of good quality drinking water are conducive to the spread of this infection. Self prescription is common in our population as the medications used for the treatment are freely available in pharmacies without proper prescriptions from doctors and are used by the public at large without proper indications. This leads to difficulty in the diagnosis and eradication of this infection. It is important to educate the masses about the perils of self-medication. Also, it is equally important to stress treating physician to confirm eradication of H. pylori infection following completion of treatment. It follows that bacteria itself though lacking virulent pattern develops mutations on exposure to oral antibiotics and has become resistant to commonly prescribed drug regimen. It describes a way to work out of this difficult situation by the concerned health care providers.