One of the biggest health challenges in industrialized and developing nations today is the high incidence and rapidly growing problem of hypertension. Hypertension is a multifactorial disease and considered the prevalent risk factor for many cardiovascular complications including myocardial infarction, cardiac failure, and coronary and peripheral artery diseases. Many hypertensive patients are salt-sensitive. Generally, the hormone, aldosterone regulates water/salt balance. An experimental model in which hypertension is triggered by excess aldosterone and high salt intake is the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt- induced hypertension. This book highlights the cytoprotective effects of the heme oxygenase enzymatic pathway in hypertension. The role of the heme oxygenase system against hypertension, hypertrophy and fibrosis as well as the mechanisms involved in the heme oxygenase-mediated protection including, the suppression of transcription factors like nuclear- factor kappaB and activating-protein-1, and the reduction of extracellular matrix/remodeling proteins like fibronectin and collagen are discussed.