It is always a matter of controversy whether the formulations use to enhance learning and memory produce placebo or real effects. The study incorporated in this book authenticates the usage of herbal formulations in learning and memory by apparently normal subjects. The first four chapters are devoted to give an overview of pathophysiology, therapeutic interventions including dietary and herbals and the evaluation methods available. A pharmacoepidemiological survey of marketed allopathic and herbal formulations was carried out initially. Based on the results of survey selected allopathic and herbal formulations were evaluated in animals. Further preliminary clinical study of two formulations authenticated the efficacy of the two products used to enhance learning and memory. In light of differences observed in the two formulations studied extensively, more such placebo-controlled trials in different subset of patient population are warranted. It is also indicated that trials are required elderly patients with or without dementia and those with mild cognitive impairment are required to be carried out to authenticate and avoid misuse of learning and memory enhancing medicines (LMEM).