Evidence has accumulated that learning Chinese as a Foreign/Second Language (CFL/CSL) and as a Heritage Language (CHL) are not the same – it has been proposed, therefore, that different learning strategies and different pedagogy are needed for these two groups of learners. However, knowledge of CHL-specific learning strategies is incomplete, and TCHL-specific pedagogy is under development. The current comparative study investigates heritage and non-heritage Chinese students’ perceptions of language learning strategy use. It also explores correlations among learners’ individual variables, for example: their language proficiency level, motivations on learning Chinese, and language learning beliefs, together with other variables such as gender, age, mother tongue, and their perceptions of learning strategy use. The study was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods. It addresses questions of both theoretical and pedagogical significance, and makes specific proposals regarding ways to improve pedagogy for UK heritage and non-heritage Chinese students.