They have been labelled “anti-modern”, “radicals”, “terrorists”, and even “women oppressors”, but is this really the case? Are Islamist parties and Al Qaida two sides of the same coin? By using a social democratic/Rawlsian framework, this book provides a nuanced, accurate, and refreshing perspective on these parties. Hezbollah and the Egyptian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood are compared on their adherence to democracy, their promotion of women’s rights, and the religious tolerance practiced by them amongst others. This is all the more important in light of the “Arab Spring”, as it is widely acknowledged that parties referencing Islam, are likely to gain the most from the democratization of Middle Eastern countries.