Information processing requires interconnects to carry information from one place to another. Optical interconnects between electronics systems have attracted significant attention and development for a number of years because optical links have demonstrated potential advantages for high-speed, low-power, and interference immunity. With increasing system speed and greater bandwidth requirements, the distance over which optical communication is useful has continually decreased to chip-to-chip and on-chip levels. Monolithic integration of photonics and electronics will significantly reduce the cost of optical components and further combine the functionalities of chips on the same or different boards or systems. Modulators are one of the fundamental building blocks for optical interconnects.