By means of an investigative case study approach this book explores the factors that contribute to candidates'' performance on a high stakes English examination. The problem that prompted the study at the heart of this book was the low success rate over a number of years in an Advanced English examination that effectively acts as a gatekeeper to higher education. This book reviews the literature on the teaching and assessment of English at postsecondary level, examines the views of students, teachers and examiners, and analyses issues of predictive validity and syllabus design in order to better understand the multifarious factors at work in high stakes testing. This book is directed at all those teachers, syllabus developers, paper setters and examiners wishing to gauge the effect of their decisions regarding pedagogy, syllabi, test papers and assessment practices. High Stakes English Testing aims to show how crucial it is for all stakeholders of such examinations to adequately address those factors that are most likely to have a negative impact on candidates'' performance if left unchecked.