More than any other infectious disease in modern medical history, HIV/AIDS has galvanized the concern and efforts of physicians, scientists, and the lay public alike. Since the initial clinical report of the disease in the summer of June 5th 1981, more than 65 million persons have been infected with HIV by 2006 and about 25 million persons have died of AIDS. By the end of 2011, 23.5 million people are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa alone impacting negatively on worlds socio-economic progress. Both HIV and Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) are prevalent in many developing and war striken nations and when they occur together, the outcome is usually severe as both conditions lead to immune suppression.In this cross sectional study we found a HIV prevalence of 7.8% among children with PEM.Incidence was higher among polygamous settings.Since both HIV and PEM suppress immunity, distinguishing the two could pose a clinical challenge. This book is recommended for clinicians,research fellows and general public who are interested in the care, prevention, social and legislative advocacy on HIV pandemic.