The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of Hmong hemodialysis patients and their nurses. The nurses used a variety of methods to learn about Hmong culture.Overall they felt there was a lack of training for them on Hmong culture. They had concerns about the Hmong hemodialysis patients'' compliance with treatment.The nurses identified patient barriers: transportation, finances, family support, depression, and anxiety; and cultural challenges: communication, Hmong beliefs about treatment, beliefs about illness, and fears about treatment. The Hmong hemodialysis patients described profound sadness, weakness and uncertainty. They were sad that they had this chronic disease, that so much of their time was spent in dialysis, and that their lives were drastically changed. They described feeling fatigued and unable to participate in family, social, and clan activities. Feelings of uncertainty and fear related to life, death, dialysis, the future, and kidney transplant were identified. This study is important for all health care providers working with Hmong patients receiving hemodialysis or wishing to learn more about this culture.