Food security is a major concern world over. While income levels are closely correlated with performance of the agricultural sector in developing countries, decreasing land size, lack of credit, inadequate use of appropriate technologies, lack of appropriate marketing channels among other factors constrain farmers’ production. Food security and income generation of households is threatened since agricultural production is adversely affected by the constraints. Can non-agricultural income generating activities improve the situation when the agricultural sector is deteriorating? This book gives insights of how selected factors (farm size, age; gender; education level of the household head, access to credit, access to market information and use of appropriate technologies) have influenced smallholder rural households’ participation in non-agricultural income generating activities and the implications of this on food security. The findings are useful to inform policy formulators and implementers on critical factors to consider regarding interventions in a bid to improve food security of smallholder rural households.