The book provides a comparative review of housing policy reforms in the context of transition to democracy and market-based economy in 27 countries. Recognizing the complexity of housing systems, it focuses on seven important housing policy domains critical for the efficient performance of housing systems. The domains reviewed are: i) strengthening political support for housing reforms; ii) establishing reliable and effective housing institutions; iii) developing effective land administration and land management; iv) mobilizing housing finance; v) facilitating improvement in housing quality; vi) sustaining housing investment and production; and vii) enabling access to affordable housing and tenure choice. On the basis of comparative, evidence-based research the book suggests that better policy environment and the use of well designed policy instruments—regulatory, fiscal and financial—can facilitate better performance of the housing system. Strategic policy recommendations address the most important challenges in the region—the growing shortage of affordable housing, deterioration of the existing multi-apartment stock and the proliferation of informal settlements.