Many developing countries especially those in Africa are facing problems of vulnerable children from child-headed families. This book therefore focuses on the major causes of the problems, of which HIV and AIDS pandemic is the major one. Children from such families experience a wide range of problems which include lack of; parental care and love, food, clothing, accommodation, toiletries and educational materials. They also suffer from increased workload and stigmatization. Lack of the above socio-economic problems negatively impact on children’s livelihoods and academic performance in schools. This book reveals that girl children were more affected by the problems than boy children, because of the ill-conceived gender roles and gender stereotypes. Majority of the vulnerable children saw education as the best means of upward mobility and security against poverty. This book is rich with testimonials and case examples of professional and critical elements of developing socio-economic services for vulnerable children to reach their full potential. This can only be achieved when there is increased scales of external assistance provided by their relatives, Government.