The authors explore ethical issues in one of the most burning and controversial debates currently taking place in research ethics literature. Through empirical research they demonstrate the lack of consensus and harmonization of international and national frameworks that pose impediments to ethical conduct of biomedical research associated with using Human Biological Materials (HBMs). The authors provide evidence that HBMs may be leaving South Africa undocumented and unaccounted for under the guise of collaborative research with developed countries. The publication of this book is timely as currently South African researchers and their institutes attract large sums of funding for collaborative research with developed countries. This book provides important insights into the laws, regulations and guidelines associated with the use of HBMs in collaborative research to researchers, bioethicists, policymakers, research ethics committees and others.