Scheduled Tribes(STs) constitute one of the Socially Excluded sections of contemporary India. Among them the numerically small Primitive Tribes(PTGs) are most vulnerable. In the post Independence era integrating these communities in the process of nation building through development has been a major challenge to India. The present work tries to provide a comprehensive picture of the development scenario of four main primitive tribes of Tamil Nadu viz., Badaga, Kota, Kurumba and Irula from global policy perspectives of human development and social exclusion. This book also addresses the substantive research questions on development and integration of tribal communities by extending the UNDPs human development and IILS social exclusion perspectives by employing quantitative and qualitative methods. This book will be of great use to social policy makers, social workers, and Civil society organisations interested in the development of indigenous populations all over the world.