In the recent years, prevalence of HIV in Pakistan has arisen from 85000 in 2005 to 96000 in 2007. It has taken the form of a concentrated epidemic in two high risk groups, namely, injection drug users and males who have sex with males. Similarly the number of Pakistani women infected with HPV is elevating dramatically. Screening for HPV in Pakistani female patients is not commonly practiced, and as a consequence, HPV prevalence and its correlation with cervical cancer is unknown. This book, therefore, provides information on the prevalent subtypes of HIV-1 in Pakistan population particularly the high-risk groups and earthquake 2005 affectees. It demonstrates the divergence patterns of HIV in Pakistan, UAE and Kenya population. We also discussed the prevalence of HPV infection and genotypes of HPV in healthy sexually active women presenting in gynecology clinic for evaluation and in Pakistani women diagnosed with cervical carcinoma. Our findings emphasize on the need of country-wide screening, treatment and increasing awareness about HIV, its mode of transmission and ways of prevention. Our analysis also underscores the demand to implement regular HPV screening for Pakistani women.