The issue of the main challenges of the human resource management during the past two decades has aroused enormous interest throughout the world, attracting the attention of both the practitioners (companies) and the academic circles. The struggle for experienced experts, renowned leaders and young talents is becoming the sharpest form of competition, whereas management therewith is one of the key issues of the XXI century. The purpose of the conducted research is to summarise and sublimate the theoretical approaches on the position and significance of human resources management, as treated in contemporary economic science, both on micro level – in the enterprises and on macro level - for human capital as a primary development factor. The book provides a realistic evaluation of the situation in the field of human resources management in entrepreneurial companies in the Republic of Macedonia, giving recommendations and directions for their further development in the field of HRM. This book should be useful to professionals in business and financial sectors, universities, students of management and entrepreneurship, or anyone interested in managing human resources.