Federalism has becoming a chosen form of governance in diverse statess. It has been indicated now almost half of the world population lives in federal countries. Ethiopia has formally adopted a federal state structure upon the adoption of the 1995 FDRE Constitution. Though federal systems create two autonomous governments working parallel to each other, such division is not without limitation. particularly, the autnomy granted for the regional governments could be compromised in order to ensure the well being and healthy functioning of the whole federal system. The system of federal intervention is the main mechanism of dealing with such possibilities. This book will deal with the challenges and opportunities of the federal intervention law of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia from the perspective of the need for the protection and respect of human rights.