The HIV epidemic is the most serious health crisis the world faces today and there are an estimated 34 million people living with the virus. To halt a further spread, national governments and international organizations take action to reach universal access to treatment and to assure effective prevention-measures. These measures by governments are legitimated through the mandate of public health protection. However, those living with HIV and vulnerable groups with a higher risk of infection suffer from discrimination and stigmatization and face human rights violations under the smokescreen of public health. Moreover, human rights and public health interrelate and an effective response to HIV may only be achieved if the measures taken are corresponding to both elements, respecting their interdependency. This thesis focuses on the interrelation of human rights and HIV prevention and whether human rights violations may lead to a higher HIV-risk.