Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) are endemic to the Indian subcontinent and frequently come into conflict with humans. In Balasore Forest Division, a total of 67 attacks (resulting in 2 deaths) occurred between June 2002 and June 2006. Most incidents took place during the monsoon season. Attacks occurred early in the morning than at other times; locations of attacks were in kitchen gardens, crop fields, and in adjoining forests. In most cases, the attacking bear ran away or was chased by other people or livestock. Most victims suffered from multiple injuries. Single injuries on face, hand and leg were reported. Collection time for the M.T.P and N.T.P by the local people i.e. mid night to late morning of food items coincided with the time when bears remained most active, which led to more encounters with people. Bears were mostly dependent on ants, termites and some fruit items in winter & summer months. Thus competition for resource sharing, non-timber forest produce collection, human disturbances, livestock grazing, feeding on crops and farming or crop protection were found to be the important factors responsible for rise in human-sloth bear conflicts.