Although slavery and slave trade were abolished long time ago in the world in which we are living, trafficking in human beings is considered to be the slavery of the modern age. Concerns about human trafficking increased after the dissolution of the Soviet Union that was characterized by destruction of communist regimes, low border controls, weak institutions, high level of corruption, bad economic situation and lack of education that resulted with trafficking of thousands of women into Western Europe for purposes of sexual exploitation. Research focuses on area of Western Balkans that represents transit routes for human trafficking. First part of this research is dedicated to general overview of a phenomenon of trafficking in human beings. Second part takes a look at the situation in the Balkan states in area of human trafficking for sexual exploitation over the last ten years.Finally, third part focuses only on the case studies countries of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. It gives in depth account on the current situation in the case studies countries in area of human trafficking for sexual exploitation and legislation framework of this crime.