The worldwide countries are currently facing a shortage of energy feedstock, while the fuels prices have increased sharply within last years. These reasons stimulate a development of new and renewable energy sources. Energy conversion considers the process technology reliability, the low capital investment and the availability of the feedstock. This book reveals process development of synthetic gas from coal during last century. The challenge of synthethic fuel production process also discussed by utilizing natural gas, coal, and coal bed methane. This book also reviews methanol as an intermediate stock either for chemicals or a fuel. The dimethyl ether is also recommended as an alternative fuel and its blend with liquefied petroleum gas. This book discussed a conventional and catalytic processes of naphtha to gain basic petrochemicals refer to olefines. The last section included a carbon fiber processing as a derivative of alkene for composite material application. This book should be especially intended to professionals, students, academician, policy makers who consider energy and polymers in their works.