Nanotechnology is poised to change the way we perceive and practice science. Nanomaterials are the ones that posses at least one dimension lesser than 100 nanometer (nm). The science of nanotechnology revolves around the ability to engineer, control and exploit the unique chemical, physical and electrical properties that the infinitesimally tiny man-made particles exhibit. A biomaterial is any material, natural or man-made, that comprises whole or part of a living structure or a biomedical device which performs, augments, or replaces a natural function. Hydroxyapatite(HAp) falls under the category of calcium phosphate based ceramics and has been used extensively for replacing and augmenting bone tissue. This book reports a comprehensive analysis on the combustion synthesis route for Hydroxyapatite synthesis, and the different characterization methods to decipher the product''s size range, functional groups, crystallinity. A preliminary study on the applicability of HAp as an adsorbent in TLC is also reported.