When assessing a health insurance scheme designed to reach the community, the assessment should cover the level of financial protection provided to its members. Financial protection is measured by the extent of protection a household obtains if subjected to catastrophic health expenditures. In studying the impact of health expenditures on households the main methodological impediment has been the multitude of pathways by which health shocks can impact the well-being of poor households and individuals. Not only are there different kinds of illnesses but even more complex are the varieties of impacts they may cause. Those impacts are contingent upon the characteristics of sick individuals, as well as the households and communities to which they belong. Out-of-pocket expenditure on medical care is predominantly used in assessing financial protection. Against this background, the main objective of this book was to assess the effect of a community based health Insurance (CBHI) introduced in 2004 in Nouna , Burkina Faso on providing financial protection to its members.