Intensive research is ongoing on IC/BPS, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. An important element in treating patients with interstitial cystitis (IC/BPS) is education and emotional support. Periodic exacerbations are managed as they occur because no single long-term therapy has been shown to prevent or delay recurrent episodes, the purpose of treatment is to improve and alleviate symptoms. Vulvodynia is a chronic type of pain that affects the vulvar area and occurs without an identifiable cause or visible pathology. It can exist in association with IC/BPS or as a single condition, prevalence rates are thought to be under-reported because many women do not seek medical care. If they do seek medical care, their condition is often misdiagnosed due to inconsistent diagnostic criteria or a lack of knowledge among health care professionals.