This book include a brief data on scale insects families and a main data, which reviews the major taxonomic characters and character-states used to diagnose species of hypogaeic margarodids in the 30 Porphyrophora species and 10 related taxa and discuss their phylogenic relationships. The book is arranged in 10 chapters and 6 appendices; all including 8 tables and 52 original figurs which as excellent line-drawn illustrations clarify the content of this book for the reader; two keys to the adult females of 9 genera and 30 species. Phylogenetic analyses including 2 cladogram. Geographic distribution and host plants associated with each species of Porphyrophora and other hypogaeic margarodids arranded in two tables. Two or four illustrations for four of the species to depict the morphological variations that may be present in each. This book will be a good reference source for those who wish to study scale insects margarodides fauna, phylogeny, crimson dye and protecting caltivated host plant from damage by harmful margarodides.