This book was submitted to the College of Post-Graduate at Al-Neelain University, Khartoum Sudan (2010). The book falls into seven chapters. Chapter one contains seven sections deal with literature review on the biology, immunology, Pathophysiology, treatment and control of Schistosoma infection. The first section of chapter one gives brief historical notes about the discovery of Schistosoma with special reference to Sudan. The second section discusses the biology of the parasite, biochemistry and molecular biology. The third section deals with the Pathophysiology of Schistosoma mansoni infection. The forth section deals with the role of cytokines in the immune response to Schistosoma mansoni infection. The fifth section is about the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. The sixth and seventh sections deal with prevention and control. Chapter two and three identified the rationale and the objectives of the research. Chapter four discusses the methodology that was adopted and followed for conducting this research.Chapter five, six, and seven include results and discussion of the study.