This book documents the impact of industrialization on heavy metal accumulation in water, sediment and biota of Kaattuppalli Island, which is one of the most pristine wetland ecosystems in the Southeast Coast of India. A detailed analysis of physico-chemical variation had been done for full calendar year (2008 – 2009). The study area was demarcated into four different collection points based on the criteria such as establishment of desalination plant, two coal firming thermal power stations, industrial effluent and other source of anthropogenic inputs into Kaattuppalli Island. Maximum temperature was recorded in surface water during summer and a minimum temperature during the monsoon season. Similarly, pH of the surface water was high during post monsoon season and low during the monsoon season. Dissolved oxygen content was low in polluted sites. Salinity however, showed an increasing trend towards post monsoon and summer season. Besides phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance showed seasonal variation with summer and pre-monsoon months recording highest abundance. Nutrients were found at high concentration during monsoon season in polluted sites.