This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the impact of the sand dams on the social and economic status of the local inhabitants of Kitui Central Division. More specifically it examines the demographic characteristics of the residents of Kitui Central, it describes the nature and type of sand dams available in the study area. The book also analyses the influence of the sand dams on the socio-cultural aspects of live of the residents. The book also tries to examine the possibility of sand dams being potential alternative sources of livelihood opportunities for the people.Lastly, the book makes recommendations on how to improve the water harvesting strategies in Kitui Central Division. The Book is recommended for policy makers and development agencies seeking to promote development of rural areas through sand dam’s project. Students taking Rural Sociology, Development Concepts and Project Management will find this book appropriate for their course work.