This book provides the impacts of polygamous marriage on women’s rural land holding and use rights. Combinations of qualitative and quantitative research approaches were employed to collect the required data and information for the study. The empirical results showed that polygamous marriages have negative impacts on women’s rural land holding and use rights. In country as like Ethiopia whose economy is based on agriculture, land holding and use rights are the major determinants of household’s livelihoods and social status. This book analyzed protection of women’s rural land rights in international instruments and national legislation in light of the practice in the study area. The analysis mainly helps all government and non governmental organizations who work for empowering women’s capacity in a sustainable manner to give due attention for the impacts of polygamous marriage.