Malaria is recognized as a leading public health problem. Prompt and effective treatment is an essential component of the strategy to control malaria. Over the years, there was a high level of resistance of P. falciparum (the major species responsible for malaria in Ghana) to mono therapies like Chloroquine (first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria) in most African countries including Ghana. There was therefore the need to change to Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) as recommended by World Health Organisation. In 2005, a new anti-malaria drug policy was introduced in Ghana with Artesunate-Amodiaquine as the first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Three years after its inception, no assessment has been done on the challenges and successes of the treatment policy. This book provides an assessment of factors that influence treatment of malaria with ACTs, operational challenges associated with policy implementation and scientific data to make appropriate recommendations to stakeholders, Health Management Teams and Organizations involved in the fight against malaria to effect the needed changes for policy direction and eventually reducing the burden of malaria.