The aim of the book was to examine the influence of some background and environmental factors on the academic performance of students of the College of Education, Addis Ababa University. Results suggested that it was the combined effect of both background and environmental variables. And, this was positively related to level of academic background, duration of prior exposure to the medium of instruction in college, getting placed into the COE based on choice, effort, and getting placed into major area of study on first choice. Results also suggested that there were significant differences between male and female students. On the contrary, academic performance was low due to low-level of influence exerted by inadequate provision of suitable classroom learning environment, and inadequate provision of academic support in the form of tutorial classes and reference materials. Level of parental education was not found out to have statistically significant relationship with academic performance. Thus, it was concluded that the low level of academic performance was influenced by all the factors except parental education. On the basis of the conclusions, some recommendations were made.